Bjarne Stroustrup designed C++, and his webpage has some links to research papers and books that he has written on the subject: http://www.research.att.com/~bs/papers.html
. You may look at The C++ Programming Language Third Edition
Also, if you have some experience with programming (especially C), I highly recommend Thinking in C++ Second Edition Volume One: Introduction to Standard C++
by Bruce Eckel.
If you don't have any programming experience, most of the beginner books seem pretty much the same, although some a more expensive than others. I wouldn't spend more than $30 - $40 on a beginner book (if that much).
And finally, one you get comfortable with the language a little bit, I think this is a really helpful site: http://www.cppreference.com/