The problem you are having where you have internet access but not being able to see or connect to local networked computers or servers.
I maintain a number of network systems. This has been an occasional problem since windows 10 was released. After hours of trying numerous fixes this is what finally worked for me. Be aware that the problem can pop back up in the future after being fixed but rerunning the following will fix it again.
1/ run command prompt as admin (right click on start button and select command prompt (admin)
You will need to copy and paste the following commands into the command prompt window 1 at a time. To copy (highlight and hit Ctrl + C To past (right click at prompt and press Ctrl + V) then hit enter to run the command.
2/ sc.exe config lanmanworkstation depend= bowser/mrxsmb10/nsi
3/ sc.exe config mrxsmb20 start= disabled
Be sure the above commands complete without errors.
After you completed the above 2 steps Restart computer and you should have access to computers on your local network.
If the problem reapers in the future which is likely you only need to repeat the above steps to fix again.