You cannot defer updates indefinitely in any consumer edition of Windows 10 and you'd have to be insane to want to. As soon as a version goes out of support you stop getting any updates, including security patches, to it.
Given what you've mentioned as the cause of that error code, that would give me a great deal of relief. Who among us, when downloading even small files like images, has never encountered a corruption at one point or another. The idea that one would occasionally creep in during the download of data as massive as is involved in a Windows 10 feature update should be unsurprising.
SFC does not scan anything other than your OS system files, hence the name, "System File Checker." Files downloaded as part of a feature update are not a part of the active OS system files, so they're not going to be checked.
What I mean by the update not taking on restart is the update not taking on restart. You've already experienced that once. You could experience it again when the next restart with update attempt is made. You'll note I said "next update" which would be the next one, which you've scheduled for Monday.
For myself, I have always suggested the ISO method and, with one exception (so far) for someone else on these forums I have never had it fail when there have been prior failures via the usual Windows Update mechanism. It also saves having to go through a possible "next download" of the ISO (or something very nearly equivalent) only to have all that time [I'm on DSL, so it takes hours] wasted if there's a burp in the update process. Once you have that ISO and have created bootable media you can use it as many times as needed, doing whatever fix tweaks as might be indicated between update attempts, and never have to worry about losing it or needing to download it yet again.
Brian AKA Bri the Tech Guy (website in my user profile) - Windows 10 Home, 64-Bit, Version 1803, Build 17134
. . . the presumption of innocence, while essential in the legal realm, does not mean the elimination of common sense outside it. The willing suspension of disbelief has its limits, or should.
~ Ruth Marcus, November 10, 2017, in Washington Post article, Bannon is right: It’s no coincidence The Post broke the Moore story