Is your machine connected to a LAN (that does not, at the moment, have internet connectivity)? Is there any machine connected to the same LAN that's a Windows 10 machine and has recently had internet connectivity and already has those updates?
If you open Settings -> Update & Security, then activate the Advanced Options link, then the Delivery Optimization link, you will find that the default setting is "Allow downloads from other PCs" is ON and that "PCs on my local network, and PCs on the Internet" is ON as well. I long ago went to strictly "PCs on my local network."
P.S. Back to your original question, the answer is "no." I know of no definition of "online," when used to describe connectivity, that doesn't include an active internet connection. [Which is different than a system or terminal being online/offline, whether or not any internet is involved].
P.P.S.: The only thing I know of that would even kinda-sorta be like "using available hotspots to access the web and phone home," would be if you have several of your WiFi settings tweaked to allow automatic connections (see Settings -> Network & Internet -> WiFi Pane and the various toggles). If memory serves all of those are off by default, but I could be mistaken on that. Mine are, and I don't recall having set them off, but I go through all the Privacy settings on any new machine I configure and setting some of those OFF cascades to related settings if memory serves. Any time you are connected to the internet and if you have telemetry, even basic telemetry, ON and you have Windows Update ON your machine is going to communicate with Microsoft's servers. That's perfectly normal, and desirable.
Addendum: I had somehow forgotten I was replying on the Win7 forum, so obviously the specific settings information shown above will not be the same on a Win7 machine. I know that system health telemetry was retrofitted to Windows 7 but I have no idea if Delivery Optimization for updates was or not. If it has been it's likely under Control Panel somewhere. I don't have a Win7 machine on which to check as my household has gone entirely to Windows 10.
Edited by britechguy, 20 February 2018 - 10:02 AM.
P.S.es and later Addendum
Brian AKA Bri the Tech Guy (website in my user profile) - Windows 10 Home, 64-Bit, Version 1803, Build 17134
. . . the presumption of innocence, while essential in the legal realm, does not mean the elimination of common sense outside it. The willing suspension of disbelief has its limits, or should.
~ Ruth Marcus, November 10, 2017, in Washington Post article, Bannon is right: It’s no coincidence The Post broke the Moore story