Hmmm... if the wifi adaptor worked in the past, and Windows Device Manager thinks it's okay and you can get an internet connection through a cable to your router .... hmmmm ....
Location might be an issue. I've got a similar problem with my desktop PC. I put a TP-Link wireless adaptor in a few years back so I wouldn't have to trip over cables running across an apartment, and it worked beautifully till I moved, and after that it worked only now and then. My fault in part, putting the box at the bottom of some metal shelves wasn't the most clever placement, even if did make sense space-wise. However! I bought a 30-ft cable from Amazon for ten bucks or so, plugged that into my PC and the router, and things have worked reasonably well since. In fact, I sometimes notice that both the wifi and the LAN connection are functioning simultaneously.
So anyhow, before spending money, try using the laptop in different locations and see if that makes any difference. Try it in different rooms, in different places in the same room, maybe off at Starbucks.
Another thing to try is reinstall your WiFi from scratch. Actually this isn't aimed at your device so much as getting the driver software and all the various settings correct. It's awful easy to confuse WPA with WPA2 when selecting security types, to restart a bollixed-up system with a wrong authorization code, etc. So if you've got the info necessary to reinstall the thing lying around, give this a try. It's cheap after all!
If both these ideas fail ... well, there's worse things than a landline to your router. Think how much better things are than with a 1440-baud modem where you have to pull your telephone jack to make a connection. Remember those days? We managed to be happy then!