Upon starting up the computer today, there is no text appearing anywhere within Windows. The user names were not shown under the icons on the login screen. Strangely, during startup the Windows logo did not appear above "Starting Windows" like normal. The desktop icons have no text under them showing their titles. The time doesn't show in the taskbar. The start menu won't appear at all when clicking the start button. Programs will eventually start when I click on a desktop icon, but very sluggishly. Text appears absurdly tiny in my browser address bar. Opening a folder essentially shows me a blank folder screen. Right-clicking does not bring up the normal menu, only a blank grey box with arrows. So performing any functions within Windows will be a challenge, if possible at all.
From some searching around, it sounds like Windows Explorer could be the culprit, and I've had problems with it in the past, but I'm not sure if it is or what to do about it. For a while now, problems like this may arise when I fully shutdown the computer and start it up. Something is wrong with the startup process. I've been avoiding it by leaving the computer in sleep mode most of the time instead of shutting down, but I finally had to shutdown and this is what happened when I started up.
I tried booting into Safe Mode, and the problem is still there. I also tried Safe Mode with the command prompt and used sfc/scannow. This almost seemed to work, as I did see text under the login icons afterwards, but I couldn't get to the desktop normally, only the black screen with the words Safe Mode, and on restart the problem was back. When I've tried to use sfc/scannow again after that, it tells me Windows Resource Protection will not allow it. I should also add that the Startup Repair tool never finds anything, and no restore point can be used (it never let me even make one when I tried.)
Any help with this would be greatly appreciated. If possible I hope to leave a reinstall of Windows as a last resort.
Windows 7 Home Premium, x64