Hi, for a long time we have thrown everything in the MS arsenal at this problem, usually to no avail, until recently, when we decided to give one of the new parameters of chkdsk a go, (especially works for defender updates), as well as the sort of problems you report.
Go to search and type:- command prompt, right click on the returned command prompt and select "run as administrator" an elevated cmd prompt will open. At the prompt type:-
chkdsk /spotfix (press enter) you will be asked to schedule a scan to run at next boot, press Y, and restart computer(must be restart, not shutdown).
Chkdsk will run on restart and only takes a minute or two. Restart computer again and try your updates now.