I'm not clear about what you're hoping to relearn.
A local account under Windows 8 or Windows 10 is pretty much what a user account had been under Windows 7. It is local to a single machine, there are no cloud-based components to it (in any meaningful sense). On two different machines you can create local account "Person1" and that user can have a different password on each and there is no connection between "Person1" on machine one and "Person1" on machine two.
A Microsoft Account linked Windows 8 or Windows 10 user account does have a cloud-based component. You can manage the password for your Windows account and Microsoft account simultaneously by changing it on your Microsoft account. Information about what programs you've purchased and licensed, etc., as well as synced settings for Edge and the like are maintained. If you set up an account on Windows 10 machine one using email@example.com as the login ID, and you later attempt to set up firstname.lastname@example.org on other Windows 10 machines you have to know the password for the account in order to set it up on the subsequent Windows 10 machines. It is, essentially, a grand-unified account that can be activated on as many Windows 10 machines as you choose and there is a raft of information carried along with it via Microsoft's cloud storage for that account.
Brian AKA Bri the Tech Guy (my website address is in my profile) Windows 10 Home, 64-bit, Version 1709, Build 16299
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