With my computing experience, browser history lists only those Internet sites that were visited. With what you have shared, I’m not able to determine why/how your lat/lon coordinates were showing in the browser of a different phone, another member with greater experience can help with that.
The best I can surmise about your location showing, is perhaps you were signed into Google/Gmail while using the browser and searching for a destination with your location history on?
You can control your location history settings within Google/Gmail:
Sign into your Gmail Account -> under your account (Avatar) select -> My Account -> Scroll down to My Activity -> Click Go To My Activity -> On the left panel click on Activity Controls -> <on the iPhone select the three dashes on the left to get to Activity Controls> Scroll down to Location History and toggle the switch to pause.
For more information while in the location history setting, click ‘Learn more’ and you are directed to:
Here are a couple other location privacy settings for the iPhone you might check out:
I sure hope that this helps, softeyes