Unfortunately, this is all from memory.
I didn't click on any link in the SMS text - it had no links, it was - as I say - VERY bare bones.
I did click on a link on a page with the "Temporarily suspended" message (the "Submit" button). See below where I give details I didn't give in my OP.
Details not previously given: I first saw the "Temporarily suspended" message on the web page that appeared after I first tried to sign into the Outlook Account on 20th May, having not signed into it for some 3 weeks. After seeing that message, I tried again to log into Outlook from different Google Search results using different search terms and a different result each time. E.g., I'd type "Outlook" into Google, and click on (e.g.) "Outlook.com - Microsoft free personal email" (https://outlook.live.com/) and navigate to the sign-in page, or type in "Outlook email" and click on "Outlook.com - Free personal email - Office.com - Sign In" (https://office.live.com/start/Outlook.aspx) and navigate to the sign-in page. In all, I did this three times in addition to the first attempt at log in. Each of these subsequent 3 log in attempts likewise led to a page with the same "Temporarily suspended" message and request for a phone number. I have Norton Security Premium and entries on Google Search results pages have little green boxes or Norton icons to signal a page is safe. I do know I only clicked on such results.
I'd also have to say the page (requesting a phone number) that I ended up acting on looked like a genuine page on the Outlook site. (But looks can deceive of course). The request for a phone number also accords with the details in the MS Support article I gave a link to in my OP. I also have MBAM Premium which often gives a popup if you access a dodgy page.
So, on the page I eventually acted on, below the "Your account has been temporarily suspended..." message, there was an instruction that, to access my Outlook account, I was to enter a phone number in the space provided (there wasn't an option of using an email account). Then again, only a phone number is referred to in the Support article I linked.
EDIT: (Sigh!) Or, maybe (memory!) the space for the phone number wasn't directly under the "temporarily suspended" message. See the first entry on this page (link follows), which looks very much like the "message" pages I'm referring to. I might, then, have clicked "Continue" and then found myself on a page requesting a phone number: https://answers.microsoft.com/en-us/outlook_com/forum/osecurity-oother/logging-in-and-constantly-getting-the-error/9d3ad9e1-aeba-46f9-9410-a2bac1cc62ea
I entered my mobile number in the space provided.
Below that space, there was a rectangular (green?) button marked "Submit". I clicked on this and the page changed to one with a space for entering the code (it looked like others I'd seen before when I'd changed passwords etc).
I soon got the text on my mobile and typed the 4-digit code it gave into the corresponding space on the web page just mentioned. I then got access to my Outlook account. One of my first actions was changing my password.
Later, when exploring "Recent Activity" within my account, I noted two of the entries referred to access being blocked because the account had been temporarily suspended.
My worry really only arose later when I found the Support article, and noted: (1) the SMS text I'd got looked so different from the illustration in the MS Support article, (2) there only being 4 digits, not 5 as in the Support article illustration, (3) the SMS text I got being so "bare-bones" - just the words I quoted above and the 4 digits, and (4) the word "Verify" on the text in place of a sender's phone number.
If you can tell me how to post an image to the thread I'll post one that compares my phone's screen with the Support article image. [Edit] or just see https://answers.microsoft.com/en-us/outlook_com/forum/osecurity-oinfosafe/account-temporarily-suspended-genuine-code-text-or/446aeea8-ebb8-4e3d-be16-e5329b6551a4
Hope this helps, many thanks
Edited by Itchy01, 02 June 2017 - 03:56 AM.