Great info. I was aware of most of this from a very surface level although I knew of Defender I did not know its role. I would just assume that having a microsoft sponsored and free built-in antiviral software makes the most sense to act as my anti-virus protection especially given its good track record with Win10.
That being said I would obviously supplement per my own amateur experience and your provided information with an anti-malware. It seems like Malwarebytes has a good reputation still and has served me well in the past so I don't see why I shouldn't just stick with that program.
This is the first I have heard of the zero-day and anti-exploit stuff. So Malwarebytes also offers an anti-exploit program that can be ran in tandem with malwarebytes and defender with no problem?
If I go with Defender as my primary anti-virus program the Limited Periodic Scanning doesn't really add anything correct?