That is different that a Mac Pro, so my descriptions obviously do not apply.
You did not mention whether it is an "Early 2011" or "Late 2011" 17" MacBook Pro. The MacBookPro8,3 designation applies to both but the shipped with different versions of the OS.
The "Late 2011" model shipped with Lion (specifically 10.7.2), which means that it should have Internet Recovery in addition to the recovery partition on the drive. So, if it is a drive issue, then it should still at least boot to the Internet Recovery option when holding down the Command-R and the hard drive recovery partition is not available or working...or you can for the Internet Recovery option with Option-Command-R. So, if you have this model, the Internet Recovery option should still work, unless it is some overall issue with the computer hardware itself, not just the hard drive or OS.https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201314
The "Early 2011" model shipped with Snow Leopard (specifically 10.6.6), which would not have had a recovery partition nor had Internet Recovery to begin with. It would have shipped with restore/recovery optical disc(s) or maybe a restore/recovery USB drive (not sure what Apple was doing with MacBook Pros that did still have an optical drive...my 2010 MacBook Air shipped with a USB drive at a minimum because it did not have an built-in optical drive...but Apple may have just totally switched to USB drives for all Macs, even though with built-in optical drives). If you then updated to 10.7.x or an even newer version of the macOS, then it would have installed a recovery partition. And Apple did release a firmware update
that added Internet Recovery support to all "Early 2011" MacBook Pro models. So, if you applied that firmware update to your MacBook Pro, then it too would have Internet Recovery and the above instructions for getting into Internet Recovery for the "Late 2011" model would also apply to this model.
So, if you cannot get Internet Recovery to work, then that likely suggests it is some bigger hardware issue with the MacBook Pro. If so, then your best bet might be to take it to either an Apple Store if you have one near you or an Apple Authorized Repair shop...or if you don't mind the potential risk, a non-authorized Apple repair shop. I don't know if an Apple Store will help with a MBP that old. When my 2010 17" MBP appeared to die, the Apple Tech had to get special permission just to test it and I don't believe they would have repaired it...I would have to have bought a new motherboard myself (decided it was not worth it...had actually already got a newer MBP anyway, although I did still like the 17" matte finish screen way better than the stupid glossy screens they now use).
If you can get Internet Recovery to work, then it likely means an issue with your drive or OS. You could try reinstalling the OS and see if the problem goes away. Or you could just do to replacing the drive then reinstalling the OS. Replacing a drive on a Unibody (which is what that model is) 17" MBP is not that hard. I upgraded my drive on my 2010 17" many times before it died on me.