Maybe I misunderstood your question, it happens to all of us.
After re-reading your initial post (OP) carefully, it's not that there's anything wrong with Google Chrome, you simply want to know about the password requirements, is that correct?
Why is it that in Kubuntu 14.04 I can view my saved passwords in Chrome without entering my "Windows" password in a popup yet in Windows 10 I must enter the password?
That's more of a 'Windows vs Linux difference as I understand what you're asking after a 2nd, closer, look. Both type of OS's are entirely different, neither resembles another in any way, although both uses the same browsers (other than IE/Edge, Google Chrome 32 bit), however any of these are installed differently.
When you're running Google Chrome on Linux (or UNIX), while the browsing experience is the same, as are saved bookmarks & extensions (some that's compatible with Windows won't be with Linux/UNIX). You don't need to provide your Windows 10 password, because it's irrelevant to running it on Kubuntu 14.04. Windows passwords should be asked for, except in extreme matters (example, to view a BitLocker enabled drive that's locked down), and you'd still need certain software installed to accomplish this.
When you're running the same browser on Windows 10, or any Windows version, the rules for that OS applies. Every brand of OS has it's own rules, this applies to Android (actually some Linux relation) & Mac, which has it's own standards. This is what's ran into when running more than one OS & is not uncommon.
I believe after reading your question much closer a 2nd & finally 3rd time, it's one line simple question, as quoted above. Hopefully I've caught the differences on some of these & have helped to somewhat understand, I have questions of my own to which there are solutions, and the 'fix' used to simply happen, yet no more. Now one must 'fix' Linux & Windows if dual booting, otherwise the UEFI (or BIOS) time is thrown off by several hours. As stated, us long timers to Linux didn't always have to fix this, maybe it has to do with UEFI now being the de facto standard, and why the change, it's the only reason I can come up with. Prior to 2012, I don't recall having to apply such fixes.
So we all have our own 'mystery' questions regarding differences, some are ignored, because there's a one time set & forget fix, yet I'd rather know why the difference, and believe you're asking the same about Google Chrome. If so, it's one of those lurky questions that we can't provide an exact answer to, other than that Linux is not the same as Windows, and therefore so are the timezones, if not fixed.
Note too, that on Linux, when requested, passwords are hidden by default, so if you're asked for one, you're not going to see it. This is for your protection only & nothing else.