Do you have the disc version or the digital version?
There is a folder in the PS3's XMB menu called Save Data. It is separate for each User of the console and it is where all your game files and progress is stored.
There is another folder named Game Data. This folder is universal all users of the console and is where game data, DLC, trophies, update data etc. is stored.
Try deleting the Game Data for Minecraft: PlayStation 3 Edition and re-installing it.
Make sure not to delete the Save Data!
When you delete the Game Data for a particular game, the next time you play that game again it will have to install data and trophies like what it does the very first time you play it. You will have to re-download any updates and DLC you might have for Minecraft.
Let me know how it goes.