The scan stopping like this is indicative of a failing hdd. You have over 200 reallocated sectors, this number is very high. When sectors are reallocated there is always the chance that some data will be lost. From what you have posted it would appear that this is the case. This makes it a craps shoot trying to recover your data. I would suggest not using the computer any except to transfer your data, continued use can result in more loss of data.
You can probably now appreciate why everyone should save their important data to external media. If you had done this already you would have all of the data to transfer to the new hdd. The is free software that you can use to clone the contents of your SSD/HDD, such as Macrium Reflect.
If you have a flash drive or an external hdd you can transfer whole folders to it. For example, say you wanted to transfer all of your pictures to the removable media (flash drive, external hdd, etc.) Open the Start menu and select This PC, right click on Pictures, in the menu that opens select Send to, your removable media should be in this list, select the removable media which you want to transfer the folder to.
Removing the current hdd and replacing it is usually very easy. If you provide me with the complete model of this I will provide you with a link to a video which will show you how to remove and replace the hdd.
You can use the Media Creation Tool to create Windows 10 installation media for a disc or flash drive.
There are three options, use the second option Using the tool to create installation media (USB flash drive, DVD, or ISO file) to install Windows 10 on different PC. This should be something that you can do. Just take your time and follow the instructions. If you have any question you only need to ask you I will be willing to help.
You will need to create the installation media for your version of Windows, for example, Windows 10 Home 64-bit. This is important since the version of you operating system is tied to the product code.
If you are concerned about your product code you can put your mind at ease, it is digitally recorded by Microsoft. When you install the operating system it should automatically activate the operating system.