I have to disagree that you cannot have a Android phone without a data plan for any reason other than the carriers enforcing it.
Every Android-powered smartphone I've had, save the last one, not only didn't have a data plan but didn't have phone service, either. Updates are all handled, and perfectly, over WiFi. On my current phone (a Galaxy S7) it actively resists downloading Android (as opposed to app, and I've set it to not do those using mobile data, too) updates except if you're connected to WiFi. They give you a warning that downloading Android OS updates over mobile data could easily exhaust your monthly allotment if you use data for lots of other things, too.
I don't know of a single carrier that will activate a smartphone without a data plan and more's the pity. I've had a pay-as-you-go plan through Virgin Mobile and have purchased two of their Android-powered smartphones over the years. I would gladly have carried that plan over to the smartphones had they allowed it because all I ever did was call. I still have the flip phone because of that plan.
I continue to get Android updates on a Samsung Galaxy J7 I have that has no SIM card in it strictly over WiFi.
My solution, since WiFi has become quite ubiquitous, and emergency calls (911) can be made even in smartphones on which the phone service has never been activated, is to use Google Hangouts with a Google Voice phone number. You can call or text with ease if you've got WiFi connectivity and if anyone calls or texts while you don't any voicemail or text messages show up moments after you reestablish WiFi connectivity.
If one really wanted to go "on the cheap" and you don't make an ungodly number of calls or send texts every five seconds you could buy one of the pocket sized pay-as-you-go wireless internet units and buy a basic monthly plan (usually $25 for thirty days service and a generous amount of bandwidth if all you're doing is calling and texting via Hangouts or similar). Then you just have your smartphone WiFi connected via that unit. The old Virgin Mobile MiFi units worked very well for this purpose and it was significantly cheaper than either their monthly plans with data or even a number of plans that were just unlimited talk and text.
Where there's a will, there's a way. Creativity is required.
Brian AKA Bri the Tech Guy (website in my user profile) - Windows 10 Home, 64-Bit, Version 1803, Build 17134
. . . the presumption of innocence, while essential in the legal realm, does not mean the elimination of common sense outside it. The willing suspension of disbelief has its limits, or should.
~ Ruth Marcus, November 10, 2017, in Washington Post article, Bannon is right: It’s no coincidence The Post broke the Moore story