I would suggest that you do as JohnC_21 suggested regarding running SeaTools for Windows. You may be able to connect your hdd to another computer and collect your data, but this is not the same as booting into Windows.
Before the installation begins you will be prompted to either Decline or Accept the terms of the installation, click on I Accept.
Once the installation begins you will see an image similar to the one below.
1. SeaTools for Windows will search for HDDs and SSDs on your computer. Please remove any external storage devices connected via USB ports.
2. Detected Drives will list the HDDs and SSDs found. Place a check mark in the drive box you want to run the scan on.
3. You will see Basic Tests above Detected Drives, move the mouse pointer over this.
4. A menu will open with options for the different scans, please click on Long Generic Test
5. This will start the scan. When the scan is complete you will see the result under Test Status , please post the results in your topic.
6. Post the results of the scan in your topic.
7. Click on Help, then click on View Log File. If the scan failed take a screen shot of the Log File and post it in your topic.
After making a change in the BIOS are you pressing the F10 to save your changes?
If you are taking this hdd and installing it in another computer and then trying to boot from it you need to be aware that this is a very bad idea. There are identifiers related to the motherboard which Windows recognizes, this is how the motherboard is tied to Windows. If you install this hdd in a computer with a different motherboard Windows will see a different set of identifiers and will basically become confused. It may not even boot at that point. If it does there is still a very good chance that the operating system will become so unstable that you will need to reinstall it.
I don't see anywhere in this topic that you have stated what operating system you are running. The reason that this is significant now is because with Windows 8.1 and 10 you can generalize the hdd/ssd which will delete these identifiers and you can then install the hdd in another computer without the potential problems that earlier versions faced if you did this.
You posted "I think also the part is proprietary." The CMOS battery for the ASUS X5DC motherboard is different from the type of battery used in most desktop computers. This battery has a connector with a pair of leads (black and red) which are connected to the battery which connects to the motherboard. The CMOS battery used in most desktops simply snaps into place. In this respect it is proprietary as it is specific to this type of motherboard. You can see this battery here.
Edited by dc3, 14 March 2016 - 09:00 AM.