I think I did something in the settings where it said how fast the CPU could go. It had a number, and I just held down the mouse on the up symbol.
Never have heard before of anyone attempting to OC a Raspberry PI, yet there's a first for everything.
I'm not that much into OC'ing, preferring to purchase faster/more powerful components instead for more native power, but have toyed with it a bit on graphic cards. Using either EVGA Precision X or MSI Afterburner for nVidia cards, and AMD's AOD for those models. When OC'ing, one must take it easy, bumping up just a notch or two at a time, in the case of the Raspberry PI, just one notch, reboot and see how it goes. Actually this applies to any type of OC'ing, going from stock values to the top of the scale (which may not be accurate) can lead to lethal results for the hardware. When you held down the mouse on the up symbol, the number you see doesn't mean it's the safest it can run, rather a general number (depending on the software used), and showing the current (stock) settings when beginning.
While the Raspberry PI is gaining in popularity & becoming an enthusiast's toy, as far as computers goes, for it's size & to pack in all it can do, is amazing as is. Thankfully, shouldn't be a huge economic loss, though if you were to do several in this manner, it would be, or to apply the above method of OC'ing to an expensive computer could end in an expensive disaster. I've personally seen the damage OC'ing can do & have respect (mixed in with some fear) for these tools. That's also why one should always perform a check to see what other enthusiasts are calling 'safe' numbers for a given device before diving in. While I'll admit to my limited use of these tools, at the same time, will do my homework first. For example, just one notch with the mouse click can make all of the difference between a steady running, safe OC, and one that'll cause BSOD's. Back off a notch & you'll likely be stable as possible. Some operations requires the adjustment of voltages, this is way past my point of expertise & at that point would set everything back to default.
If I were to do this with my GPU's, going to the top number & ran a benchmarking tool (such as Heaven's Benchmark), it wouldn't make it through the series. Probably would be fried & possible damage to the MB also, since the GPU is connected directly to it, and possibly other components. Since the SD card was connected to your device, there's always the possibility that damage could have been caused, as it should format to out of the package capacity, regardless of good or corrupted file system. All that the format does is destruct the data, not repairing a possibly partially defective component. Of course, there's always the chance that the SD card were already gone bad to some degree, though if it would boot prior to the massive OC, seems like the OC could render part of it bad.
Good Luck with these type of operations in the future, if you have further questions, feel free to ask.