I am a bit unclear about your setup.
have bought a new hard drive to replace the failed drive in my lenovo G570 laptop
Ok, so we are dealing with two (2) physical HDDs here, right? You say that your laptop HDD failed. However, you also say that you can boot into Windows in Safe Mode. So...it sounds like your HDD did not fail, but has an operating system corruption that prevents booting into Windows normally. The word "fail" means that the drive "broke" mechanically and will not run any more at all. That is a mechanical fail.
C drive is 421gb and D drive is 28.9gb.
I take it that there are two (2) partitions on the same Laptop HDD, C and D. However, there is only one (1) physical HDD? If you take 421gigs + 29gigs, that totals 449 gigs which is the proper size of a single 500gig HDD. So your lap HDD is actually a 500gig HDD. This confuses lots of people, because they expect that when they purchase a 500gig HDD they find it loses about 30-50gigs when installed. That has to do with the way the space is measured, one way by the manufacturer and a different way in realtime. I won't go into all the details about that but you can search it and find tons of explanations on the web.
Last question: when did this all start? Was there a electrical failure in the house while the computer was running, or an electical spike, or it was turned off in the middle of running a program, etc.? And finally, what operating system are you running?