While a virus is always possible, I had the same inability to download any Microsoft updates either manually or automatically, getting error code 80244019, as of Windows 10 release on 7-29. I am using windows 8.1. I don't plan to update to Win 10 for at least several months until, I hope, Microsoft corrects more weirdness, like this, etc. However, it would be scary not to get any security updates for 8.1 home for an extended period. Unchecking the "other updates" worked instantly for me to be able to check for the main updates. If I recheck it, the error code comes back the next time I try to get updates until I uncheck it again. My path in Win 8.1 Home is Control Panel, Windows Update, Change Settings, then, at bottom, uncheck Microsoft Update (other products).
I did spend considerable time researching on the internet since the MS site suggested totally useless solutions and the error code mislead many more knowledgeable on the internet. MS still has not even acknowledged that Win 10 has broken this, but I can do without the "other updates" for quite a while since I don't use many of the free "other" programs and none of the paid ones like Word (LibreOffice for me). Why pay extra for problems like this? Mucho thanks the internet posters who figured out the work around. JS10013