With reference to your Post #4 - if you accept the 'System recovery options' this will give you a number of further options to attempt to repair Windows. Until your data is safe, do NOT use the 'Toshiba recovery wizard' option. As Queen-Evie has said, this option will wipe all the data off your drive.
Like Queen-Evie, I would try to recover all my data - including the stuff like contact lists and bookmarks that tend to get forgotten - before I started repairing the drive. If you can access a 2.5 inch hard drive caddy and get some time on a second computer it is just a matter of copying your data as far as possible to some other form of external drive. This is what I mean by a 'caddy' -
This is just to give you an idea of what you need as this is from Amazon UK but they are widely available from any number of suppliers. And they are simplicity to use.
Remove your hard drive from the laptop. Usually 2 or 4 small screws to remove the cover plate and you will then be able to slide out the HDD. Then put it into the caddy and connect it by USB to another computer. The example quoted above is for USB3 and comes with a USB3 cable. If you are in any doubt about how to remove yur hard drive, search on YouTube for 'Your make and model + hard drive' and you should find several videos on how to do this.