If you can get chkdsk to finish, you might be able to get some or all of the data. If a computer is not shut down properly, sometimes linux will be unable to mount the disk normally, there are commands to force mount but I would recommend you continue with chkdsk. If your chkdsk finishes successfully, you can try to mount it from linux and try to pull the data off of the drive. Linux and windows sometimes handle problems with hard drives differently. If you can not get all of the data from one OS or the other, I would recommend trying both.
One thing about failing hard drives, when trying to recover data or even just running chkdsk might cause the drive to fail completely, it doesn't happen all that often but I recommend if chkdsk finishes, you pull data off starting with the highest priority data. Choose what data you need the most and go for that before getting other data that is less important. Depending on how bad the drive is, you might have to copy single files at a time rather than entire folders.
I prefer using linux and grsync for failing drives if a chkdsk will finish correctly. The linux quick copy paste method has not been as effective as grsync for me. Parted magic (linux distro) has grsync built in. Unfortunately newer builds now cost money. You might be able to find an older build that is still free. You might be able to add grsync to your build of linux with a command. I know it exists for linux mint which is still free and available:
Linux mint: http://www.linuxmint.com/download.php
grsync for linux mint: http://community.linuxmint.com/software/view/grsync
DDrescue is another tool you might look into.
Edited by zingo156, 28 November 2014 - 12:10 PM.