Just to ask, do you have a system image either on a usb stick, an external hardrive or scattered across a heap of cd-rw discs? In my experience with window 8 system images sometimes work when reset/refresh, automatic repair, system restore and system recovery discs do not. It may alos be possible that there is a recovery partition with an old system image somehwere on your harddrive. Another thing i should ask is did you start with windows 8, get forcibly upgraded to 8.1 and then suffer problems? Some hardware that works for windows 8 won't with 8.1, it is rare for a system to run 8.0 without trouble but have problems with 8.1 but it can happen. If i am right in interpreting your first post as the following sequnce happening to you:
1.had a windows 8 computer
2.computer upgraded to 8.1 of it's own accord
3.immediately after upgrade system had problems including inability to make further updates
4.managed to revert to 8.0, everything worked fine for a while
5.computer then forcibly upgraded again
6.and since that upgrade the problems have been happening again?
My first instinct would be to use a system image to go back to an earlier state, or do whatever you did to go back to 8.0. See if your machine works well then and if windows updates can be installed, but avoid two particular updates KB2871389 and KB2973544. Then test all the other things that you say aren't working correctly at present, i suspect they might work again. If i am right in interpreting that upgrades to 8.1 have caused your problems then removing/not installing in the first place those two particular updates should stop the computer being turned into 8.1 wihout your permission. If i am wrong in interpreting that your problems happened after upgrading then this is not relevant to your issue. If that doesn't help then i am not sure what has caused your issues but suspect it may be rather serious whatever it is, if restoring to an earlier state can't help.
I can't say i know enough about viruses to say whether one could do the weird things to the partitions that you suggest, but it might be worth asking for advice about that. The fact that CCleaner shows such a rapid buildup of temp file and that an adblocker doesn't work certainly looks suspicious, but it could be a random sympton of damage of some sort rather than a virus.
If you are able to use a system image to "take the system back" to an earlier state before these problems began then you might be able to cure them all(whether they are corruption, random damage or malware).
Before using system images make sure to backup all your recent personal files (documents,pictures,videos,audio,zip archives) to an external device (dvd, cd-rw, usb or external harddrive) as system images usually erase EVRYTHING on the disc and replace it with what was there when the image was made. If a system image works to restore your computer to a working state then just to be safe make sure to carefully antivirus scan all those backups before copying the files back onto your "new" machine. There is a good guide on this site for how to perfrom system images, there are also plenty of people here with more skill than me who can advise you before you attempt to restore from an image about any issues you encounter.
Edited by rp88, 25 November 2014 - 07:22 PM.
Back on this site, for a while anyway, been so busy the last year.
My systems:2 laptops, intel i3 processors, windows 8.1 installed on the hard-drive and linux mint 17.3 MATE installed to USB