I'd agree with A&V, you should definitely get a better PSU than a CX500 in a build like that.
I would go for the i7-4790 CPU which has a little more performance for the same price.
Also I'd agree that the Arctic CPU cooler is a waste really. It's OK for if you get an OEM CPU without a cooler, or replacing a broken stock one. It's not really an upgrade over what comes with the CPU anyway. The parts you've chosen are not particularly suitable for CPU overclocking (H97 board, locked CPU) so no requirement to go "extreme" on the cooling, but I think the Haswell stock cooler is a bit weak, so I'd upgrade it a bit anyway for peace of mind.
As far as the case goes, the product page for the CoolerMaster Cosmos SE states "supports all high-end VGAs up to 395mm/15.5 inches long and CPU coolers up to 175mm/6.9 inches tall". On further investigation it appears that if the drive cages are in, it is reduced to 276mm, which is getting tight.
A few links to look at:
The i7-4790 I'd suggest - http://au.pcpartpicker.com/part/intel-cpu-bx80646i74790
Some power supplies I think would be more suitable:
Seasonic SSR-650RM - http://au.pcpartpicker.com/part/seasonic-power-supply-ssr650rm (my personal pick)
Cooler Master VSM 650 - http://au.pcpartpicker.com/part/cooler-master-power-supply-rs650amaag1
Antec True Power Classic 650 - http://au.pcpartpicker.com/part/antec-power-supply-tp650c
Silverstone Strider Essential Gold 700 - http://au.pcpartpicker.com/part/silverstone-power-supply-st70fesg
Some cases at various prices that are suitable and can accommodate the card easily with max card length:
Corsair 400R - http://au.pcpartpicker.com/part/corsair-case-400r (316mm)
Corsair C70 - http://au.pcpartpicker.com/part/corsair-case-c70militarygreen (320mm)
Corsair 230T - http://au.pcpartpicker.com/part/corsair-case-cc9011040ww (360mm)
Cooler Master N600 - http://au.pcpartpicker.com/part/cooler-master-case-nse600kwn1 (405mm)
Fractal Design Define R4 - http://au.pcpartpicker.com/part/fractal-design-case-fdcadefr4bl (295mm)
Lian Li PC6 - http://au.pcpartpicker.com/part/lian-li-case-pc6 (440mm) (alu)
There are loads more but those were a few that caught my eye.
The Cooler Master Evo 212 is a good all round CPU cooler for the money, much more efficient than the stock cooler or the Arctic Alpine 11 and should fit the cases above.