I'm assuming when you say everything else is working fine, that after the pictured display the system continues to boot up into Windows? Or does it halt and need a warm boot (Ctrl-Alt-Del)? Also, if you just restart Windows, does the startup message show then too?
Data cable problems would be likely to cause things like BSODs or file corruption, although I once had a faulty IDE data cable that only ever caused registry errors. That was weird. If you have no such problems, maybe it's more a hard drive problem, and there again I have had an occasional hard drive which is slow to ID. That could possibly cause the system to look for a LAN boot, then find the hard drive next time around. That particular drive problem can be diagnosed, and even worked around, if the BIOS has an option to disable Fast Boot. That allows devices more retries to ID and can allow a slow IDing device to be usable, at the cost of a longer boot up time.