The short answer is most likely no unless you have installed a find my phone app of some sort. If your OS is Android, there may still be hope...
You can try these steps: http://trendblog.net/how-to-track-your-lost-android-phone-without-tracking-app/
Most modern phones that use LTE or 4G cellular data use a private ip not a public facing ip (unless you buy a static ip from the provider). There are 3rd party apps to find the phone but you would have had to install that before losing the phone. Even if you could ping the phone via ping command, a ping command would not locate the device.
For android I have used: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.fsp.android.phonetracker&hl=en
For apple devices, just enable find my iphone and log into apples website to locate the device.
Edited by zingo156, 07 July 2014 - 01:02 PM.