Since CryptoLocker does not discriminate in who or what it attacks, it recently caused a successful attack on a medium sized medical practice. The practice immediately paid the ransom and was able to retrieve some but not all files. In this case, at no time was patient safety compromised, but I could envisage cases in the future where it might be.
The worst effect is that this may constitute a HIPPA breach. If that turns out to be the case then it may cost up to $100,000 to rectify because each of the 150,000 patients the practice has, must be notified. The two bitcoins were insignificant noise compared to that.