I'm down to simply trying to install Java 7u45 i586 but every time I run it I get a Java Setup error message "Error 1336. There was an error creating a temporary file that is needed to complete this installation."
That's just the most recent of many errors related to creating or accessing temp files. This system definitely has plenty of room in the temp folders, which are empty to begin with.
The first time temp files were mentioned was when I let Windows Update install a bunch of updates. About 15 installed fine but when a .NET Framework 4 update tried to install it never finished. Ultimately I'd close the updater and stop the update service. The Event Log showed a long list of the same error:
"Product: Microsoft .NET Framework 4 Client Profile -- Error 1711. An error occurred while writing installation information to disk. Check to make sure enough disk space is available, and click Retry, or Cancel to end the install."
I restarted the system, ran Windows Update, unchecked all NET Framework-related updates and successfully installed a number of remaining updates.
I then tried repairing the NET Framework 4 installation (an uninstaller option) but it too eventually threw a temp file-related error. Haven't tried uninstalling it because I suspect it's needed by Quicken or some other program.
Besides these Windows Update problems I got temp-file related errors when I tried to install the old version of Java (v7u5) and Google Earth. A FixIt for installing/uninstalling problems allowed me to ultimately remove them.
I've run Chkdsk and a few items were fixed. I've scanned the drive online and offline using NOD32 7, Stinger, Sophos Virus Removal Tool, GMER, hitmanpro, tdsskiller, and Malwarebytes. Nothing was found.