I'm not familiar with Ubuntu error messages, but better to get a message which is telling you that you have a serious problem with your system than to attempt to ignore it and end up with a dead system.
Try running check disk on the hard drive.
1. Type command prompt in the Search charms. Right click on it and click on Run as administrator.
2. Type chkdsk /r and hit enter.
NOTE: The root drive has to be C: and the command may schedule a task at the system startup, if it does, then press Y to schedule a task and restart the computer to perform chkdsk.
The check will probably take 1-2 hours to run.