I see this thread is from 2013 but since this just happened to me and I could not find any other threads on the net about this problem, I figured I should post the fix even though I have not figured out the cause yet.
I have a client that is on AD and the machines are W7. The pattern is that the users have shut down the PC for over two weeks (vacation, leave of absence) and then the first time they power on, the PC thinks the user is a new user to that computer and assigns’ them the default profile. No TEMP profile messages or missing or corrupted profile errors, just you are a new user, here you go...
If you follow the steps below, you should be able to get all the users data back. I have for all 3 users so far.
1) The user in question is logged in. Verify that there are no temp profiles in the USERS folder.
2) Log off the PC and back on as a Local Admin
3) Create a temp folder on the desktop called Recovered.
4) Open COMPUTER then C drive then USERS folder then open the User in question's folder.
5) From the MENU bar, select TOOLS then FOLDER OPTIONS.
6) Click the VIEW tab
7) Turn on "Show hidden files..." and turn off “Hide protected..." then click OK
8) Right click on the blank space to the right side of the folder names and select PROPERTIES.
9) Click on the "PREVIOUS Versions" tab
10) You should now see a list of the user in question folders with dates.
11) DO NOT RESTORE! Instead OPEN the last folder (other than the one under the TODAY label). You should now be able to navigate the folders and see all the files that were missing.
At this point, you have two options.
1) If the user only cared about their files, just move the folders they want from the Recovered folder you created earlier and then move them to the user’s new profile.
2) If you want to restore the entire profile, navigate back to the C:\users\ (USERS folder). Make sure you can see both folders at the same time (the recovered folder and the user's folder). Select all in the Recovered folder right click and drag into the New User's folder. Yes to Merge and replace all.
If prompted, SKIP all duplicates, copy all files with out attributes, and any other messages you may get.
When that's done, log off and have the user log back in. They should now have all their files, folders, Printers, Drive mapping, everything.
If the user modifies a file several times in one day, only the version that was current when the restore point or backup was made is saved as a previous version.
This restore option is available for any folder on the PC. This has been a life saver many times.
To finds out more about Previous Version, press F1 and search for: Previous versions of files: frequently asked questions.