To open I would like to quote from the Malware history pages of Wiki written about 3 years ago -
In 1985, there were 11 known computer viruses. Today, there are more than 70,000 and new threats are detected every day.
There are basically 2 general types of infections that I think you refer to here -
Most are listed under Bleeping Computer malware guide http://www.bleepingcomputer.com/virus-removal/
Many are added by Grinler (Laurance Abrahams) or quietman7 for your own DIY removal -
Reveton is the "main" given name for the FBI or Department of Justice Ransomware virus that locks your system and then demands money to unlock it.
While the more "general" Rogue Antivirus infection is one that offers you something that looks like a Protection Program, and then infects your computer by you installing, either by mistake, or by thinking it is going to help to protect you.
Some of the Rogue infections are like XP Security Cleaner Pro or System Care Antivirus named programs that are in the second variety under Rogue Infections. See the link above -
Many Registry Cleaner programs can also fall into the second group of Rogue Infections -
Also you have the more secretive Toolbar extensions, that are downloaded with many legal programs, but you often need to untick or not accept these during installing of many programs. Even Java has a toolbar that should be unticked.
Then there are many similar infections that are installed on your computer in "Drive-by" downloads that you do not install your self, but you only visit / surf any site that contains these infections and the Malware is downloaded to yuor computer.
While this is not a full guide, the help guides from quietman7-> Here also offer good ideas.
There are many more details that could be added, but you are better off starting at any of the Malware Removal Schools available on some of the better sites that have dedicated helpers / Experts to train you -
The following are websites who host training facilities: United Network of Instructors and Trained Eliminators
•Geeks to Go
•What the Tech
•That Computer Guy
•Tech Support Forum
Again, this only touches the surface, and has not included Rootkits, Keyloggers, Backdoor Infections, and dozens of other varieties of generally named Malware that you can protect yourself from with a lot of reading or teaching from a decent school.
Any training school will expect you to do a lot of research on your own, but they generally offer good support, as this will show up in their future pupils going out to the Malware removal world much better equipped to handle problems.
Thank You -