Osiris, the languages you mention are all used for different functions. C/C++/Java are the general all-purpose programming languages in the list, and C/C++ are probably the fastest (maybe Pascal too, I actually don't remember how fast compiled Pascal was). I actually think C is a great language to start with, because if you learn C you can handle literally anything.
Many of the others are for more special purposes. For example, Perl and PHP are scripting languages --- they are used for automating routine tasks, and powerful programs can be written in them very quickly. The tradeoff for that is speed --- they can be up to a factor of 10 or even 100 slower. PHP is the de-facto standard for web-based scripting --- if you use a web page that has a form or some kind of embedded program for processing, chances are it's in PHP. Most of this forum is written in PHP.
The moral of the story is that different languages are useful for different purposes. But when LEARNING to program, I suggest you choose a language and stick to it for now. Because most of the process of learning to program carries over from one language to another --- the basic ideas, strategies, and even structural designs, even if the syntax may change (and frankly most languages are even fairly similar in syntax nowadays). Hope this helps