Hello and welcome to Bleepingcomputer.
First off I am going to offer a link to the MSI product support web site for your X58M computer.
I would take it based on your description that this computer booted up successfully with the stock heat sink, but has failed once you tried installing the heat sink cooler.
Here are a few possibilities of what I believe is happening here.
When you switched heat sinks you shifted the motherboard to a point where a motherboard to computer case stand-off is making contact with a circuit on the motherboard causing a short circuit to the case ground.
Or you loosened a wired connection on the motherboard that does not appear loose.
You should recheck the connections going from the power supply to motherboard, make sure those are firmly and securely locked into the sockets on the motherboard.
Try loosening the screws that hold the motherboard in place in the computer tower and try booting up the system again.
You could also try using a pen or pencil and while booting up the computer system try flexing (gently pushing down) the motherboard in various areas to see if the system boots up.
If the symptom disappears, you now know your system board was either shorting out to the computer case, or you have a faulty or loose connection on the motherboard.
I am hoping that when you installed the cooler that you did not short circuit the board with the cooler and did permanent damage to one of the circuits.
Just be careful when you work inside the computer case that you guard against static discharge damage to the motherboard, it is very important that you ground your self first to a grounded source and for safety, it is best to keep one hand on the computer case, this helps prevent static discharge damage from happening.
If you have any questions or need more information, please feel free to ask.