OK...I've never seen such errors before...but I was able to see what happened.
When attempting to install Windows (initial or repair), a setup log is created or updated. Along with this, a setup error log is created: if the install goes well, the setup error log is just blank while it otherwise reflects noted problems.
The two graphics you just posted...are setup errors from your repair attempt.
Anytime you see "cyclic redundancy error" when a CD/DVD disk is involved...that means that Windows had problems reading the data on the disk. Many reasons this could happen...generally, it's a CD/DVD that needs cleaning or where files were not properly copied/burned to disk.Error: SXS.DLL Syntax error in manifest or policy file L:\I386\asms\1000\MSFT\WINDOWS\GDIPLUS\GDIPLUS.MAN".
Unfortunately...this error seems to occur often enough to be somewhat documented by Google. I say "unfortunately" because...no one seems to have any better ideas than I do about what causes it or how to overcome it. Lots of guessing...nothing definitive. Guesses range from corrupt file to bad motherboard/bad optical drive.
You can review some/all at Gdi\gdiplus.man Man XP Install Errors
OK, you showed us what happened when you attempted the repair, that looks like a dead end for now.
Does this XP CD...reflect the same SP as is currently installed on your system? If not, neither a repair install nor running sfc /scannow will accomplish much that is desired.