Your title...says "programs."
Adobe Reader is a single program and is known to have issues with updating, IME.
Have you tried uninstalling it and then reinstalling the most current version?
What other programs have you experienced problems installing...or updating?
<<When trying to install\uninstall programs I get the same error message. Also the Administrative Tools icon in the Control Panel just clicks but does not open.>>
Have you tried running chkdsk /r on your system partition?Opinions Of Others On Such Folders
How large is C: and how much free space on it right now?