No. Chkdsk is a good tool, but it has limitations that a diagnostic utility will not have. The chkdsk /r command is a first step to try to clear up various XP situations involving files, file structure, and hard drive aspects.
Once it's been determined that chkdsk r/ could not or did not fix the issue, the next logical step (IMO) is to determine who is the manufacturer of your hard drive and prepare to run a manufacturer's diagnostic on the drive in question.
Hard drive manufacturers (generally) provide diagnostic utilities for the drives they manufacturer/sell...because hard drive failure/problems are fairly common in computing.
This utility can normally be run from CD, these days. The utility is downloaded in the form of an .iso file...and then that file is burned to CD, using any of several programs.
How to successfully burn or write an ISO-image to cd or dvd - http://iso.snoekonline.com/iso.htm
, this link provides a list of software which can be used to create the bootable CD from the .iso file...following the specific instructions for each respective program. Active@ Iso Burner is the one I use, it seems the easiest to me.
One list of known utilities available: Hard Drive Installation and Diagnostic Tools - http://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/28744/hard-drive-installation-and-diagnostic-tools/