If you have USB ports, they may only be USB 1.0 or 1.1 spec...which means that they might not be fast enough to run an all-in-one or a printer designed for USB 2.0 specs.
And...it's possible that your USB controllers are dead...the drivers are corrupt.
Start/Run...type devmgmt.msc and hit Enter or OK. Do you see any yellow or red markings by any device? If you do, that would probably indicate a driver problem, although every driver problem will not leave an indication in Device Manager.
It's not uncommon for any system's original USB ports to stop functioning...it's happened to several of us who frequent the forum. The workaround is simply to have a USB 2.0 controller card handy and install it when problems arise.