Well you got number 1 and 2 right, lol.
1. An Intel processor that has two cores built into it, that's what the core 2 duo means. Having multiple cores means it can do multiple things better.
2. That is ram. the mhz is the speed it runs at. When picking out a motherboard, it will usually say what speed of ram it supports. It's usually a good idea to match the number's.
3. That is a graphics card. That is currently a higher end card for extreme gamers.
4. That is a motherboard. The brand is Asus, and the striker extreme boards are made for gaming.
5. Those are hard drive's. the 2X means they have two of them, and raid is a configuration of two or more hard drive's which I don't want to tell you about yet because it might confuse you
(no offense). The 10,000rpm means the disk spins at 10,000 rotations per minute. Most hard drives spin at 7200rpm, and laptops spin at 5400rpm. this makes loading things a bit faster (not much faster and these drives usually cost a lot more).
6. That is a power supply. 850W means 850 Watts. PSU stands for Power Supply Unit. Coolermaster is the brand.
All the megahertz and gigahertz are the latencies of the part. The most important one to pay attention to is the processor's. Now this number alone doesn't determine how fast a processor is, but it is a pretty big factor, especially if you're comparing two like processors such as core 2 duo. most every dual-core processor is faster than a single-core processor (except maybe some of the really slow dual-core's comapred to the fastest single-cores). Nowadays, all they make are dual-cores, tri-cores, and quad-cores.
"I think there is a world market for maybe five computers." - Thomas Watson, Chairman of IBM, 1943