Do you recall if you installed any Updates when you machine was last able to connect to the Internet?
When Internet Explorer is attempting to bypass your Home Page and redirect to the go.microsoft.com/fwlink/ website, this is to configure settings in Internet Explorer after updates have been applied. Its a one time setup which will revert back to your normal Home Page upon configuring the settings available.
Its possible that the last set of updates you attempted to install failed during installation, became corrupt, or altogether corrupted your network connections.
You can check for the most recent applied updates in the Control Panel >> Add or Remove Programs applet. You will want to check the box to Show Updates. Check for updates applied around the same date as when your network connectivity began showing problems. If you see updates which are applicable to network or Internet Explorer, you may want to uninstall those updates and test your connectivity. Remember to restart your machine after uninstalling anything to ensure that the changes are completed.
Check it out and post back for further information.
You can also refer to the following posts on troubleshooting network connectivity issues:http://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/133791/ip-address-conflict/http://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/133029/ip-address-problem/